Congratulations Inovi Green!!! Winner of the 2014 Commitment to Green Award

Don't mind if we give ourselves a pat on the back, we've been working overtime with new and current clients on our green technologies! But hey, we want to congratulate the other finalists because we are all winners...

Kona Brewing Company - Your Coco Brown and Wailua Wheat are amazing, yes we definitely support at least one full time staff member with our enjoyment of these fine beverages.

Group70 - What an amazing architecture company, deeply respect the history and vision, and fun fact - your Sustainability Marketplace was one of the first locations where we displayed two of our technologies! 

Sunetric - HUGE Solar PV company...... nuff said..... 

Here's the formal announcement with some great pics! https://www.facebook.com/PacificEdge

2014 Pacific Edge Magazine Award Winners

2014 Pacific Edge Magazine Award Winners

Asia Pacific Agricultural Innovation Summit 2014

Hoooray! We have our work cut out for us a this year's Ag Innovation Summit! (http://www.islandsconnect.com/) We are doing TWO pitch challenges, a tech expo, poster expo and presenting a 1.5 hr panel! 

Here are some of our core literature review files, enjoy and feel free to start a dialogue with us.

1) How Microbes can Help Feed the World: American Academy of Microbiology 2012: http://academy.asm.org/images/stories/documents/FeedTheWorld.pdf

2) Healthy Soil Microbes, Healthy People: Atlantic Journal 2013: http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/06/healthy-soil-microbes-healthy-people/276710/2/

3) Tiny Microbes are the Next Big thing in Farming: VOA News 2014: http://www.voanews.com/content/tiny-microbes-are-next-big-thing-in-farming/1886300.html

4) The Next Green Revolution may relay on microbes: PBS NOVA 2014: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/nature/more-food-with-microbes/

 

 

2014 Waikiki Project Clean / Go Green

This past Saturday, we participated in Honolulu Police Department 's District’s Project Clean/Go Green held on June 28, 2014.  We cleaned three pavilions and the Queen’s Beach comfort station.  With the use of our Aqueous Ozone Technology, we were able to improve the smell from some of the most complained about areas.  
 
Mahalo again to Honolulu Police Department, Waikiki Business Improvement District, Starwood, Honolulu Zoo, Hyatt, Parks & Recreation, and Rene Mansho (Go Green) for involving us in such a rewarding project!  


Horrifying Skin Infection Spreading From Raw Seafood In Chinatown

030514raw.jpg

AP via NBC New York

An outbreak of a rare skin infection has been detected amongst live and raw seafood handlers in the city's Chinatowns in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens—as you can see, the results are pretty gross. The Health Department released a statement this morning about the bacteria, called Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum), which has been turning up on the hands of people handling the products.

The bacteria enters through cuts on the hands and causes "red, tender swelling under the skin of the hands and arms, hand or arm pain, and difficulty moving fingers." If left untreated, surgical treatment could be required. The DOH encourages anyone who handles the raw seafood to wear gloves, especially they have any kind of cut or abrasion.

There's apparently "no risk" for anyone who chooses to eat the food from these markets. Cooking methods may kill the bacteria, but what about raw preparations like sushi; are diners still safe? We reached out to the DOH for this very important clarification and have been assured there's "no risk associated with eating the fish or seafood." Yay?

Contact the author of this article or email tips@gothamist.com  with further questions, comments or tips.

By Nell Casey in Food on Mar 5, 2014 3:49 PM

China's Huge Infrastructure Program

McKinsey's Jonathan Woetzel explores China's huge infrastructure program and the country's plans to build sustainable urban clusters for hundres of millions of its people.

"It's safe to say that China has had the single-biggest buildout of infrastructure in the history of mankind,” says McKinsey’s Jonathan Woetzel. “And clearly still more to go.” Indeed, despite the progress resulting from hundreds of billions of dollars in investment over the past 15 years, the efficiency of China’s infrastructure still lags behind that of developed countries by decades. Moreover, as part of the country’s effort to modernize its economy and society, it is on a path to create numerous urban clusters—of as many as 50 million residents each—that will require massive investments to make them accessible and environmentally sustainable

In this video, Jonathan Woetzel, a director in McKinsey’s Greater China office, deconstructs the infrastructure and environmental challenges that in large part will determine whether China succeeds in the next chapter of its remarkable development story.

Full Article

Hamakua Springs Turns to Inovi Green and the Lotus Cleaner

“Everybody cares more about what they eat, where it comes from, how it’s grown. If it has chemicals, pesticides, growth hormones or antibiotics." - Chef Alan Wong

This morning we met with Alan Wong and Richard Ha at the Pineapple Room to do a piece with KHON on the chemical free cleaner we implemented on Hamakua Springs Country Farms.  Hamakua Springs, located on the slopes of Mauna Kea in beautiful Pepe‘ekeo on the Big Island of Hawai‘i, is currently run by Richard Ha.  Richard is a 4th generation farmer who knows that the successful future of farming lies with always being many steps ahead of the game when it comes to food quality and reducing the cost of producing. The adoption of new proven technology and processes is a big part of the farms sucesss.  Alan Wong's restaurant relies on the food sourced from Richard's farm to be of the highest quality in taste and safety. 

With the recent outbreak of the hepatitus A virus, utilizing technologies such as the Lotus Aqueous Ozone to sanitize and eliminate pathogens, bacteria and chemicals is critical in maintaining food safety.

What ozone can do very effectively in almost every situation is clean processing facilities. All surfaces can be sprayed with ozonated water at any time during the workday, because unlike many chemicals, it is not harmful if it comes into contact with food. Doing this will eliminate biofilm that can harbor pathogens and contribute to cross-contamination.

It’s USDA organic and because its only byproduct is O2, it leaves no harmful chemical residue on foods or in the environment once it breaks down. As an added benefit for workers, ozone reduces odor in facilities, and cuts down on allergens in the air.

For more details on Hamakua Springs' innovative technologies and focus on food safety visit their website or check out their blog.

KHON article - http://www.khon2.com/2013/06/12/local-farmer-turns-to-natural-cleaner-to-kill-bacteria/

Lead Poisoning: A Historical Perspective

Lead Poisoning: A Historical Perspective by Jack Lewis 
[EPA Journal - May 1985]
Hence gout and stone afflict the human race;
Hence lazy jaundice with her saffron face;
Palsy, with shaking head and tott'ring knees.
And bloated dropsy, the staunch sot's disease;
Consumption, pale, with keen but hollow eye,
And sharpened feature, shew'd that death was nigh.
The feeble offspring curse their crazy sires,
And, tainted from his birth, the youth expires.
(Description of lead poisoning by an anonymous Roman hermit,
Translated by Humelbergius Secundus, 1829)
The decades-old controversy over the use of lead as a fuel additive is a mere footnote to centuries of controversy over this remarkably useful but also insidiously deadly metal.
The ancients regarded lead as the father of all metals, but the deity they associated with the substance was Saturn, the ghoulish titan who devoured his own young. The very word "saturnine," in its most specific meaning, applies to an individual whose temperament has become uniformly gloomy, cynical, and taciturn as the results of lead intoxication.
In the rigidly hierarchical world of the ancients, lead was the plebeian metal deemed suitable for a vast variety of everyday uses. Lead products were, to a certain degree, accessible even to the poorest proletarian. But only the chosen few were at the top of the social totem pole were able to regularly indulge their insatiable craving for lead-containing products.
Lead was a key component in face powders, rouges, and mascaras; the pigment in many paints ("crazy as a painter" was an ancient catch phrase rooted in the demented behavior of lead-poisoned painters); a nifty spermicide for informal birth control; the ideal "cold" metal for use in the manufacture of chastity belts; a sweet and sour condiment popular for seasoning and adulterating food; a wine preservative perfect for stopping fermentation or disguising inferior vintages; the malleable and inexpensive ingredient in pewter cups, plates, pitchers, pots and pans, and other household artifacts; the basic component of lead coins; and a partial ingredient in debased bronze or brass coins as well as counterfeit silver and gold coins.
Most important of all was lead's suitability as inexpensive and reliable piping for the vast network plumbing that kept Rome and the provincial cities of the Roman Empire supplied with water. Indeed, the very word "plumbing" comes from the Latin word for lead, plumbum. The lead pipes that were the vital arteries of ancient Rome were forged by smithies whose patron saint, Vulcan, exhibited several of the symptoms of advanced lead poisoning: lameness, pallor, and wizened expression.
Addicted to Lead
The Romans were aware that lead could cause serious health problems, even madness and death. However, they were so fond of its diverse uses that they minimized the hazards it posed. Romans of yesteryear, like Americans of today, equated limited exposure to lead with limited risk. What they did not realize was that their everyday low-level exposure to the metal rendered them vulnerable to chronic lead poisoning, even while it spared them the full horrors of acute lead poisoning.
The symptoms of acute lead intoxication appeared most vividly among miners who were thrown into unhealthy intimacy with the metal on a daily basis. Romans reserved such debilitating and backbreaking labor for slaves. Some of these unfortunates were forced to spend all of their brief and blighted lives underground, out of sight and out of mind. The unpleasantness of lead mining was further neutralized late in the Empire when the practice was prohibited in Italy and consigned completely to the provinces.
Lead smelting, which had once been commonplace in every Roman city and town, eventually followed mining operations to the provinces. Italy, the heart of imperial Rome, grew tired of the noxious fumes emanating from lead smelting forges. The obvious damage to the health of smithies and their families was a matter of little or no concern.
Roman aristocrats, who regarded labor of any sort as beneath their dignity, lived oblivious to the human wreckage on which their ruinous diet of lead depended. They would never dream of drinking wine except from a golden cup, but they thought nothing of washing down platters of lead-seasoned food with gallons of lead-adulterated wine.
The result, according to many modern scholars, was the death by slow poisoning of the greatest empire the world has ever known. Symptoms of "plumbism" or lead poisoning were already apparent as early as the first century B.C. Julius Caesar for all his sexual ramblings was unable to beget more than one known offspring. Caesar Augustus, his successor, displayed not only total sterility but also a cold indifference to sex.
The first century A.D. was a time of unbridled gluttony and drunkenness among the ruling oligarchs of Rome. The lead concealed in the food and wine they devoured undoubtedly had a great deal to do with the outbreak of unprecedented epidemics of saturnine gout and sterility among aristocratic males and the alarming rate of infertility and stillbirths among aristocratic women.
Still more alarming was the conspicuous pattern of mental incompetence that came to be synonymous with the Roman elite. This creeping cretinism manifested itself most frighteningly in such clearly degenerate emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus. It is said that Nero wore a breastplate of lead, ostensibly to strengthen his voice, as he fiddled and sang while Rome burned. Domitian, the last of the Flavian emperors, actually had a fountain installed in his palace from which he could drink a never-ending stream of leaded wine.
Medieval and Renaissance Lead
During the Middle Ages, lead was widely used by alchemists as a key component in procedures thought to be capable of generating gold from baser metals. Lead served an even more lofty function when leaded type launched Gutenberg's galaxy late in the fifteenth century. Mass printing was crucial to the eradication of ignorance that led to the upheavals of the Reformation and the Enlightenment.
Kinkier and more destructive uses of lead never lagged far behind. The advantages of the metal as an invisible and slow-acting poison were not lost on the Lucrezia Borgias and Catherine de Medicis of Renaissance Europe. Lead was known to be extremely convenient for eliminating inconvenient relatives. In fact, the world-weary French jokingly referred to the metal as poudre de la succession -- or succession powder. Another sinister latter-day use of lead was, of course, in the mass production of pistols, rifles, and cannons and the ammunition designed to blaze a bloody trail from their barrels.
Lead mining and smelting began in the New World almost as soon as the first colonists were settled. By 1621 the metal was being mined and forged in Virginia. The low melting temperature of lead made it highly malleable, even at the most primitive forges. Furthermore, lead's resistance to corrosion greatly enhanced its strength and durability. Technological progress in the American colonies and the American republic was to owe a great deal to this useful and abundant metal.
By the twentieth century, the U.S. had emerged as the world's leading producer and consumer of refined lead. According to the National Academy of Science's report on Lead in the Human Environment, the United States was by 1980 consuming about 1.3 million tons of lead per year. This quantity, which represents roughly 40 percent of the world's supply, translates into a usage rate of 5,221 grams of lead per American per annum: a rate of dependence on lead and lead-containing products nearly ten times greater than that of the ancient Romans! According to Jerome O. Nriagu, the world's leading authority on lead poisoning in antiquity, the comparable Roman rate of lead usage was approximately 550 grams per person per year.
Not the least significant of those U.S. lead uses, although the one subject to the sharpest decline in the past decade, has been in the automotive industry. Since 1923 -- with a brief interruption in 1925 -- the U.S. has made extensive use of tetraethyl lead as an anti-knock, octane-boosting gasoline additive.
Running on Lead
Considerable ballyhoo surrounded the introduction of tetraethyl lead in the early 1920s. Iodine, aniline, selenium, and other substances had all fallen by the wayside in the frantic search for a fuel additive that would improve engine performance and reduce engine knock.
Then in December 1921, three General Motors engineers -- Charles Kettering, Thomas Midgeley, and Thomas Boyd -- reported tremendous success with their first test of tetraethyl lead. Through the Ethyl corporation, then a GM subsidiary, GM quickly began touting this lead compound as the virtual savior of the American automobile industry.
The discovery was indeed extremely important. It paved the way for the development of the high-power, high-compression internal combustion engines that were to win World War II and dominate the U.S. automotive industry until the early 1970s.
Unfortunately, the use of tetraethyl lead created almost as many problems as it solved. The first danger sign was the mysterious illness that forced Thomas Midgeley to spend weeks convalescing in the winter of 1923. Midgeley had been experimenting rather recklessly with the various methods of manufacturing tetraethyl lead, and he did not at first realize just how dangerous the substance was in its concentrated liquid state.
The deadliness of tetraethyl lead was sadly confirmed in the summer of 1924. Workers engaged in producing the additive fell sick and died at several refineries in New Jersey and Ohio. Banner headlines greeted each new fatality until a total of 15 workers had lost their lives -- and their minds.
Terrifying rumors circulated about the madness that had put some of the doomed into straitjackets before it put them six feet under. It was not long before journalists were calling leaded fuel "loony gas." Ironically, the gas in question was routinely dyed "a wine color" that made it reminiscent in more ways than one of something served at a Roman orgy.
In May 1925, the Surgeon General temporarily suspended the production and sale of leaded gasoline. He appointed a panel of experts to investigate the recent fatalities that had "occurred in the manufacture and mixing of the concentrated tetraethyl lead." The panel was also asked to weigh "the possible danger" that might arise "from...wide distribution of a lead compound" through its sale as a gasoline additive.
Industry dominated the Surgeon General's investigatory committee, which included only one genuine environmental visionary, Dr. Alice Hamilton of Harvard University. The Coolidge Administration gave the panel just seven months to design, run, and analyze its tests.
The committee's final report, published in June 1926, complained of the time constraints under which it had been forced to operate. Seven months was "not sufficient," argued the panel, "to produce detectable symptoms of lead poisoning" in experimental subjects because of the very slow gestation of that toxicological syndrome.
Nevertheless, the Surgeon General's panel ruled that there were "no good grounds for prohibiting the use of ethyl gasoline...as a motor fuel, provided that its distribution and use are controlled by proper regulations." The coming decades of Depression, total war, and post-war boom were hardly conducive to the implementation of "proper regulations" for leaded gasoline. Indeed, no compulsory standards were set for the industry until the early 1970s when EPA began its long, hard struggle to phase down lead levels in U.S. gasoline.
One saturnine prophecy marred the otherwise sanguine 1926 report to the Surgeon General. By 1985 these words were to reverberate with particular resonance down the corridors of time:
"It remains possible that, if the use of leaded gasolines becomes widespread, conditions may arise very different from those studied by us which would render its use more of a hazard than would appear to be the case from this investigation. Longer experience may show that even such slight storage of lead as was observed [among human guinea pigs] in these [1925] studies may lead eventually to recognizable lead poisoning or to chronic degenerative diseases of a less obvious character. In view of such possibilities the committee feels that the investigation begun under their direction must not be allowed to lapse.... With the experience obtained and the exact methods now available, it should be possible to follow closely the outcome of a more extended use of this fuel and to determine whether or not it may constitute a menace to the health of the general public after prolonged use or under conditions not now foreseen.... The vast increase in the number of automobiles throughout the country makes the study of all such questions a matter of real importance from the standpoint of public health."
Needless to say, this advice fell on deaf ears during the gin-soaked, jazz-crazed Roaring Twenties.
Voluntary Standard
In 1927 the Surgeon General set a voluntary standard for the oil industry to follow in mixing tetraethyl lead with gasoline. This standard -- 3 cubic centimeters per gallon (cc/g) -- corresponded to the maximum then in use among refiners, and thus imposed no real restraint. Even without prodding, however, the industry did take giant strides toward instituting safer working conditions in oil refineries, thereby protecting individual laborers in the microcosm of the workplace.
Three decades later, the Surgeon General actually raised the lead standard to 4 cc/g (equivalent of 4.23 grams per gallon). This voluntary standard once again represented the outside range of industry practice. Nevertheless, the Surgeon General concluded in 1958 that a loosening of the voluntary standard posed no threat to the health of the average American: "During the past 11 years, during which the greatest expansion of tetraethyl lead has occurred, there has been no sign that the average individual in the U.S. has sustained any measurable increase in the concentration of lead in his blood or in the daily output of lead in his urine."
The actual industry average during the 1950s and the 1960s hovered in the vicinity of 2.4 grams per total gallon. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), which was home to the Surgeon General starting with the Kennedy Administration, had authority over lead emissions under the Clean Air Act of 1963. The criteria mandated by this statute were still in the draft stage when the Act was reauthorized in 1970 and a new agency called EPA came into existence.
By then, the adverse effects of America's decades-old addiction to fossil fuel in general and leaded fuel in particular were becoming obvious to all. In January 1971, EPA's first Administrator, William D. Ruckelshaus, declared that "an extensive body of information exists which indicates that the addition of alkyl lead to gasoline...results in lead particles that pose a threat to public health."
It should be emphasized, however, that scientific evidence capable of documenting this conclusion did not exist in previous decades. Only very recently have scientists been able to prove that low-level lead exposure resulting from automobile emissions is harmful to human health in general, but especially to the health of children and pregnant women.
EPA took an emphatic stand on the issue in its final health document on the subject, "EPA's Position on the Health Implications of Airborne Lead," which was released on November 28, 1973. This study confirmed what preliminary studies had already suggested: namely, that lead from automobile exhaust was posing a direct threat to public health. Under the Clean Air Amendments of 1970, that conclusion left EPA with no option but to control the use of lead as a fuel additive known to "endanger the public health or welfare."
The very next month, in December 1973, EPA issued regulations calling for a gradual reduction in the lead content of the total gasoline pool, which includes all grades of gasoline. The restrictions were scheduled to be implemented starting on January 1, 1975, and to extend over a five-year period. The average lead content of the total gasoline pool of each refinery was to be reduced from the level of approximately 2.0 grams per total gallon that prevailed in 1973 to a maximum of 0.5 grams per total gallon after January 1, 1979. Litigation was to postpone implementation of this phasedown for two years.
Dawn of the Catalytic Converter
Starting with the 1975 model year, U.S. automakers responded to EPA's lead phasedown timetable by equipping new cars with pollution-reducing catalytic converters designed to run only on unleaded fuel. Fittingly, a key component of these catalysts that were to be the undoing of lead was that noblest of noble metals, platinum.
Although over 40 percent of all pump sales are still leaded as of today, the market share of leaded vehicle is steadily diminishing. And with it, so is the noxious cloud of lead-polluted air we have grown accustomed to breathing. EPA estimates that ambient lead levels dropped 64 percent between 1975 and 1982.
In 1982, with the introduction of unleaded gasoline well underway, EPA developed a new standard intended to apply strictly to leaded gasoline. In October of that year the agency promulgated a standard of 1.1 grams per leaded gasoline (gplg). This was roughly equivalent to the standard of 0.5 per total gallon that had become effective in 1980. But by focusing on leaded gallons only, EPA's new standard narrowed the range of lead content deviation and set the stage for significant reductions still to come. At this writing, 1.1 gplg is still the EPA standard, but it will expire on July 1 of this year when a lower standard takes effect.
As part of the EPA's latest lead phasedown initiative, the 1.1 gplg standard will drop on July to 0.5 gplg. Then on January 1, 1986, the standard will go down even further to 0.1 gplg. This will represent a 90 percent decrease from the agency's current standard for leaded fuel. Overall, the 1986 standard will represent a drop of more than 98 percent in the lead content of U.S. gasoline from the time of EPA's founding in 1970 to 1986. This already impressive achievement may go one step further if EPA institutes a total ban on lead; the agency is now considering a total lead phaseout, which could begin as soon as 1988.
On the basis of all that is known about the history of lead and its adverse effects on human health, it is impossible not to welcome EPA's latest lead phasedown initiative as well as the agency's decision to consider banning lead altogether from U.S. gasoline.
Lewis was Assistant Editor of EPA Journal.

Lead Poisoning: A Historical Perspectiveby Jack Lewis [EPA Journal - May 1985]
Hence gout and stone afflict the human race;Hence lazy jaundice with her saffron face;Palsy, with shaking head and tott'ring knees.And bloated dropsy, the staunch sot's disease;Consumption, pale, with keen but hollow eye,And sharpened feature, shew'd that death was nigh.The feeble offspring curse their crazy sires,And, tainted from his birth, the youth expires.(Description of lead poisoning by an anonymous Roman hermit,Translated by Humelbergius Secundus, 1829)The decades-old controversy over the use of lead as a fuel additive is a mere footnote to centuries of controversy over this remarkably useful but also insidiously deadly metal.
The ancients regarded lead as the father of all metals, but the deity they associated with the substance was Saturn, the ghoulish titan who devoured his own young. The very word "saturnine," in its most specific meaning, applies to an individual whose temperament has become uniformly gloomy, cynical, and taciturn as the results of lead intoxication.
In the rigidly hierarchical world of the ancients, lead was the plebeian metal deemed suitable for a vast variety of everyday uses. Lead products were, to a certain degree, accessible even to the poorest proletarian. But only the chosen few were at the top of the social totem pole were able to regularly indulge their insatiable craving for lead-containing products.
Lead was a key component in face powders, rouges, and mascaras; the pigment in many paints ("crazy as a painter" was an ancient catch phrase rooted in the demented behavior of lead-poisoned painters); a nifty spermicide for informal birth control; the ideal "cold" metal for use in the manufacture of chastity belts; a sweet and sour condiment popular for seasoning and adulterating food; a wine preservative perfect for stopping fermentation or disguising inferior vintages; the malleable and inexpensive ingredient in pewter cups, plates, pitchers, pots and pans, and other household artifacts; the basic component of lead coins; and a partial ingredient in debased bronze or brass coins as well as counterfeit silver and gold coins.
Most important of all was lead's suitability as inexpensive and reliable piping for the vast network plumbing that kept Rome and the provincial cities of the Roman Empire supplied with water. Indeed, the very word "plumbing" comes from the Latin word for lead, plumbum. The lead pipes that were the vital arteries of ancient Rome were forged by smithies whose patron saint, Vulcan, exhibited several of the symptoms of advanced lead poisoning: lameness, pallor, and wizened expression.
Addicted to Lead
The Romans were aware that lead could cause serious health problems, even madness and death. However, they were so fond of its diverse uses that they minimized the hazards it posed. Romans of yesteryear, like Americans of today, equated limited exposure to lead with limited risk. What they did not realize was that their everyday low-level exposure to the metal rendered them vulnerable to chronic lead poisoning, even while it spared them the full horrors of acute lead poisoning.
The symptoms of acute lead intoxication appeared most vividly among miners who were thrown into unhealthy intimacy with the metal on a daily basis. Romans reserved such debilitating and backbreaking labor for slaves. Some of these unfortunates were forced to spend all of their brief and blighted lives underground, out of sight and out of mind. The unpleasantness of lead mining was further neutralized late in the Empire when the practice was prohibited in Italy and consigned completely to the provinces.
Lead smelting, which had once been commonplace in every Roman city and town, eventually followed mining operations to the provinces. Italy, the heart of imperial Rome, grew tired of the noxious fumes emanating from lead smelting forges. The obvious damage to the health of smithies and their families was a matter of little or no concern.
Roman aristocrats, who regarded labor of any sort as beneath their dignity, lived oblivious to the human wreckage on which their ruinous diet of lead depended. They would never dream of drinking wine except from a golden cup, but they thought nothing of washing down platters of lead-seasoned food with gallons of lead-adulterated wine.
The result, according to many modern scholars, was the death by slow poisoning of the greatest empire the world has ever known. Symptoms of "plumbism" or lead poisoning were already apparent as early as the first century B.C. Julius Caesar for all his sexual ramblings was unable to beget more than one known offspring. Caesar Augustus, his successor, displayed not only total sterility but also a cold indifference to sex.
The first century A.D. was a time of unbridled gluttony and drunkenness among the ruling oligarchs of Rome. The lead concealed in the food and wine they devoured undoubtedly had a great deal to do with the outbreak of unprecedented epidemics of saturnine gout and sterility among aristocratic males and the alarming rate of infertility and stillbirths among aristocratic women.
Still more alarming was the conspicuous pattern of mental incompetence that came to be synonymous with the Roman elite. This creeping cretinism manifested itself most frighteningly in such clearly degenerate emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus. It is said that Nero wore a breastplate of lead, ostensibly to strengthen his voice, as he fiddled and sang while Rome burned. Domitian, the last of the Flavian emperors, actually had a fountain installed in his palace from which he could drink a never-ending stream of leaded wine.
Medieval and Renaissance Lead
During the Middle Ages, lead was widely used by alchemists as a key component in procedures thought to be capable of generating gold from baser metals. Lead served an even more lofty function when leaded type launched Gutenberg's galaxy late in the fifteenth century. Mass printing was crucial to the eradication of ignorance that led to the upheavals of the Reformation and the Enlightenment.
Kinkier and more destructive uses of lead never lagged far behind. The advantages of the metal as an invisible and slow-acting poison were not lost on the Lucrezia Borgias and Catherine de Medicis of Renaissance Europe. Lead was known to be extremely convenient for eliminating inconvenient relatives. In fact, the world-weary French jokingly referred to the metal as poudre de la succession -- or succession powder. Another sinister latter-day use of lead was, of course, in the mass production of pistols, rifles, and cannons and the ammunition designed to blaze a bloody trail from their barrels.
Lead mining and smelting began in the New World almost as soon as the first colonists were settled. By 1621 the metal was being mined and forged in Virginia. The low melting temperature of lead made it highly malleable, even at the most primitive forges. Furthermore, lead's resistance to corrosion greatly enhanced its strength and durability. Technological progress in the American colonies and the American republic was to owe a great deal to this useful and abundant metal.
By the twentieth century, the U.S. had emerged as the world's leading producer and consumer of refined lead. According to the National Academy of Science's report on Lead in the Human Environment, the United States was by 1980 consuming about 1.3 million tons of lead per year. This quantity, which represents roughly 40 percent of the world's supply, translates into a usage rate of 5,221 grams of lead per American per annum: a rate of dependence on lead and lead-containing products nearly ten times greater than that of the ancient Romans! According to Jerome O. Nriagu, the world's leading authority on lead poisoning in antiquity, the comparable Roman rate of lead usage was approximately 550 grams per person per year.
Not the least significant of those U.S. lead uses, although the one subject to the sharpest decline in the past decade, has been in the automotive industry. Since 1923 -- with a brief interruption in 1925 -- the U.S. has made extensive use of tetraethyl lead as an anti-knock, octane-boosting gasoline additive.
Running on Lead
Considerable ballyhoo surrounded the introduction of tetraethyl lead in the early 1920s. Iodine, aniline, selenium, and other substances had all fallen by the wayside in the frantic search for a fuel additive that would improve engine performance and reduce engine knock.
Then in December 1921, three General Motors engineers -- Charles Kettering, Thomas Midgeley, and Thomas Boyd -- reported tremendous success with their first test of tetraethyl lead. Through the Ethyl corporation, then a GM subsidiary, GM quickly began touting this lead compound as the virtual savior of the American automobile industry.
The discovery was indeed extremely important. It paved the way for the development of the high-power, high-compression internal combustion engines that were to win World War II and dominate the U.S. automotive industry until the early 1970s.
Unfortunately, the use of tetraethyl lead created almost as many problems as it solved. The first danger sign was the mysterious illness that forced Thomas Midgeley to spend weeks convalescing in the winter of 1923. Midgeley had been experimenting rather recklessly with the various methods of manufacturing tetraethyl lead, and he did not at first realize just how dangerous the substance was in its concentrated liquid state.
The deadliness of tetraethyl lead was sadly confirmed in the summer of 1924. Workers engaged in producing the additive fell sick and died at several refineries in New Jersey and Ohio. Banner headlines greeted each new fatality until a total of 15 workers had lost their lives -- and their minds.
Terrifying rumors circulated about the madness that had put some of the doomed into straitjackets before it put them six feet under. It was not long before journalists were calling leaded fuel "loony gas." Ironically, the gas in question was routinely dyed "a wine color" that made it reminiscent in more ways than one of something served at a Roman orgy.
In May 1925, the Surgeon General temporarily suspended the production and sale of leaded gasoline. He appointed a panel of experts to investigate the recent fatalities that had "occurred in the manufacture and mixing of the concentrated tetraethyl lead." The panel was also asked to weigh "the possible danger" that might arise "from...wide distribution of a lead compound" through its sale as a gasoline additive.
Industry dominated the Surgeon General's investigatory committee, which included only one genuine environmental visionary, Dr. Alice Hamilton of Harvard University. The Coolidge Administration gave the panel just seven months to design, run, and analyze its tests.
The committee's final report, published in June 1926, complained of the time constraints under which it had been forced to operate. Seven months was "not sufficient," argued the panel, "to produce detectable symptoms of lead poisoning" in experimental subjects because of the very slow gestation of that toxicological syndrome.
Nevertheless, the Surgeon General's panel ruled that there were "no good grounds for prohibiting the use of ethyl gasoline...as a motor fuel, provided that its distribution and use are controlled by proper regulations." The coming decades of Depression, total war, and post-war boom were hardly conducive to the implementation of "proper regulations" for leaded gasoline. Indeed, no compulsory standards were set for the industry until the early 1970s when EPA began its long, hard struggle to phase down lead levels in U.S. gasoline.
One saturnine prophecy marred the otherwise sanguine 1926 report to the Surgeon General. By 1985 these words were to reverberate with particular resonance down the corridors of time:
"It remains possible that, if the use of leaded gasolines becomes widespread, conditions may arise very different from those studied by us which would render its use more of a hazard than would appear to be the case from this investigation. Longer experience may show that even such slight storage of lead as was observed [among human guinea pigs] in these [1925] studies may lead eventually to recognizable lead poisoning or to chronic degenerative diseases of a less obvious character. In view of such possibilities the committee feels that the investigation begun under their direction must not be allowed to lapse.... With the experience obtained and the exact methods now available, it should be possible to follow closely the outcome of a more extended use of this fuel and to determine whether or not it may constitute a menace to the health of the general public after prolonged use or under conditions not now foreseen.... The vast increase in the number of automobiles throughout the country makes the study of all such questions a matter of real importance from the standpoint of public health."Needless to say, this advice fell on deaf ears during the gin-soaked, jazz-crazed Roaring Twenties.
Voluntary Standard
In 1927 the Surgeon General set a voluntary standard for the oil industry to follow in mixing tetraethyl lead with gasoline. This standard -- 3 cubic centimeters per gallon (cc/g) -- corresponded to the maximum then in use among refiners, and thus imposed no real restraint. Even without prodding, however, the industry did take giant strides toward instituting safer working conditions in oil refineries, thereby protecting individual laborers in the microcosm of the workplace.
Three decades later, the Surgeon General actually raised the lead standard to 4 cc/g (equivalent of 4.23 grams per gallon). This voluntary standard once again represented the outside range of industry practice. Nevertheless, the Surgeon General concluded in 1958 that a loosening of the voluntary standard posed no threat to the health of the average American: "During the past 11 years, during which the greatest expansion of tetraethyl lead has occurred, there has been no sign that the average individual in the U.S. has sustained any measurable increase in the concentration of lead in his blood or in the daily output of lead in his urine."
The actual industry average during the 1950s and the 1960s hovered in the vicinity of 2.4 grams per total gallon. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), which was home to the Surgeon General starting with the Kennedy Administration, had authority over lead emissions under the Clean Air Act of 1963. The criteria mandated by this statute were still in the draft stage when the Act was reauthorized in 1970 and a new agency called EPA came into existence.
By then, the adverse effects of America's decades-old addiction to fossil fuel in general and leaded fuel in particular were becoming obvious to all. In January 1971, EPA's first Administrator, William D. Ruckelshaus, declared that "an extensive body of information exists which indicates that the addition of alkyl lead to gasoline...results in lead particles that pose a threat to public health."
It should be emphasized, however, that scientific evidence capable of documenting this conclusion did not exist in previous decades. Only very recently have scientists been able to prove that low-level lead exposure resulting from automobile emissions is harmful to human health in general, but especially to the health of children and pregnant women.
EPA took an emphatic stand on the issue in its final health document on the subject, "EPA's Position on the Health Implications of Airborne Lead," which was released on November 28, 1973. This study confirmed what preliminary studies had already suggested: namely, that lead from automobile exhaust was posing a direct threat to public health. Under the Clean Air Amendments of 1970, that conclusion left EPA with no option but to control the use of lead as a fuel additive known to "endanger the public health or welfare."
The very next month, in December 1973, EPA issued regulations calling for a gradual reduction in the lead content of the total gasoline pool, which includes all grades of gasoline. The restrictions were scheduled to be implemented starting on January 1, 1975, and to extend over a five-year period. The average lead content of the total gasoline pool of each refinery was to be reduced from the level of approximately 2.0 grams per total gallon that prevailed in 1973 to a maximum of 0.5 grams per total gallon after January 1, 1979. Litigation was to postpone implementation of this phasedown for two years.
Dawn of the Catalytic Converter
Starting with the 1975 model year, U.S. automakers responded to EPA's lead phasedown timetable by equipping new cars with pollution-reducing catalytic converters designed to run only on unleaded fuel. Fittingly, a key component of these catalysts that were to be the undoing of lead was that noblest of noble metals, platinum.
Although over 40 percent of all pump sales are still leaded as of today, the market share of leaded vehicle is steadily diminishing. And with it, so is the noxious cloud of lead-polluted air we have grown accustomed to breathing. EPA estimates that ambient lead levels dropped 64 percent between 1975 and 1982.
In 1982, with the introduction of unleaded gasoline well underway, EPA developed a new standard intended to apply strictly to leaded gasoline. In October of that year the agency promulgated a standard of 1.1 grams per leaded gasoline (gplg). This was roughly equivalent to the standard of 0.5 per total gallon that had become effective in 1980. But by focusing on leaded gallons only, EPA's new standard narrowed the range of lead content deviation and set the stage for significant reductions still to come. At this writing, 1.1 gplg is still the EPA standard, but it will expire on July 1 of this year when a lower standard takes effect.
As part of the EPA's latest lead phasedown initiative, the 1.1 gplg standard will drop on July to 0.5 gplg. Then on January 1, 1986, the standard will go down even further to 0.1 gplg. This will represent a 90 percent decrease from the agency's current standard for leaded fuel. Overall, the 1986 standard will represent a drop of more than 98 percent in the lead content of U.S. gasoline from the time of EPA's founding in 1970 to 1986. This already impressive achievement may go one step further if EPA institutes a total ban on lead; the agency is now considering a total lead phaseout, which could begin as soon as 1988.
On the basis of all that is known about the history of lead and its adverse effects on human health, it is impossible not to welcome EPA's latest lead phasedown initiative as well as the agency's decision to consider banning lead altogether from U.S. gasoline.
Lewis was Assistant Editor of EPA Journal.

http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/perspect/lead.html

Top 10 Gorgeous Green Buildings That Actually Exist

We all know that high-tech green buildings can be stunningly beautiful. Unfortunately, though, many of these buildings won’t be built for years, if ever. Creating these impressive structures is a very difficult and expensive process, so it makes sense that many of the concepts don’t yet exist.
But, some of these beautiful buildings have been built. In this list, we’ve found a collection of incredible green buildings that actually exist right now, as in, you could walk into them and take a look around. Additionally, each of these buildings is LEED Platinum certified, which is the highest green rating available to a modern structure.
With that in mind, here is a list of the top 10 beautiful green buildings that actually exist. Check them out if they happen to be nearby, or just get excited about the fact that such beautiful eco-friendly architecture is actually a reality.
jewish-reconstruct-center
1. Jewish Reconstructionist Congregation, IL
Zoning ordinances limiting the size of the building and how it manages stormwater made this congregation get creative in how they looked at space. By mapping out the building’s hourly space use during the week, they were able to determine where they could manipulate the space for its most efficient use — and they found a 25% space savings. The building also used an extensive amount of reclaimed cypress and other viable building materials.
shangri-la
2. Shangri La Botanical Gardens
Buildings on the garden’s premises include indoor and outdoor educational spaces, a visitors’ center, theater, and administrative offices. The center had some challenging environmental concerns, and the buildings located on wetlands and other natural areas are floating above the land with solar panels as their source of energy. The center also used fallen trees from the September 2005 hurricane Rita, which directly hit Shangri La’s property.
queens-garden
3. Queens Botanical Garden, NY
The garden rests on the site of the former 1939 & 1964 World’s Fairs and is free to the public. It manages all stormwater on site, and has reduced its water consumption by 55% by reusing graywater and installing waterless urinals. It also makes use of natural lighting and solar panels to reduce its energy consumption. Interestingly, about 1/3 of the materials used for the building came from a 500 mile radius.
ASU Biodesign Building
4. Arizona State University Biodesign Institute
It’s only fitting that a bio design institute would have such a gorgeous, LEED Platinum certified building. 15% of the material used in its construction came form recycled materials. The building is only 4 floors — with the hope that stairs will be used more frequently than the elevators. The building also uses multiple shade and sun control techniques. There’s even sensors that adjust the artificial lighting automatically based on whether or not a room is being used. And that’s only a glimpse of the features that help this building lower its energy and water consumption. Arizona State has achieved not only a beautiful LEED certified building, but it has more creative and productive students and faculty and receives an enormous amount of biomedical research funding.
California Academy of the Sciences
5. California Academy of Sciences
This building is quite an interesting one. It’s all under a 2.5 acre green roof, and it holds over 38,000 animals. The roof itself absorbs 90-98% of the rainwater, and surrounding the roof are solar panels that supply the building with 5-10% of its energy supply. Inside, you’ll find an aquarium, a tropical forest exhibit, natural life museum, and more.
heifer-international
6. Heifer International Headquarters, AR
Heifer International is an organization devoted to eliminating world hunger. Their offices are close to public transportation and in walking distance of a pedestrian entertainment district. Its technology allows it to use 55% less energy than similar buildings, and it has extensive water-saving features that reuse rainwater and graywater for irrigation, toilets and cooling. What’s really interesting about this building is that it has selected durable and maintainable building materials that are expected to last for about 100 years.
nau-ard
7. North Arizona University ARD Building, AR
Northern State University’s Applied Research and Development building stands above the rest — being the only building at such a high altitude to achieve LEED’s Platinum rating. The building stands at 7,000-ft altitude, which creates different and more challenging problems when compared to buildings at lower altitudes. Technology used throughout the building has decreased its energy consumption by 60% compared to normal buildings, and its solar panel system produces 20% of the energy it does use.
hawaii-energy-center
8. Hawaii Gateway Energy Center
This building’s purpose is to house offices, commercial space, conference facilities, and educational facilities relating to the energy and technology fields. The facilities take advantage of natural sunlight, allowing for less use of artificial lighting, and it boasts a creative and exciting ventilation and heating/cooling system that mechanically circulates the air and uses seawater to cool the hot air captured on its copper roof. It also has solar panels that provide 100% of the energy used to run the the buildings entire systems — in fact, it exports energy.
enc-newport
9. Environmental Nature Center, CA
The Environmental Nature Center, located in Orange County, CA, produces more energy through its solar panels than it uses. It takes advantage of natural light and sensors to decrease the amount of artificial lighting needed, and it has a ventilation system that uses the ocean air to eliminate the need for air conditioning. The center also used a large amount of recycled materials in its construction and has drought-resisted landscaping, which means they don’t need an irrigation system.
gerding-theater-armory
10. Gerding Theater at the Armory, OR
This theater is home to the Portland Center Stage theater company and is a re-purposed building that’s on the National Register of Historic Places. By reusing rainwater and installing water-saving technologies, they’ve decreased their potable water demand by 88%. Sensors help control the artificial lighting to reduce energy costs, and chilled (or heated) beams that are connected to district-chilled-water plant are used for cooling & heating.

 

(Hat tip,EcoSimply)

 

Energy-efficient water desalination company snags $60 million

By  | May 3, 2012

Summary: The money includes a new venture capital infusion, along with credit for equipment financing and working capital.

More evidence this week of the strategic nature of technology aimed at creating pure water  without consuming an inordinate amount of dirty energy to process it: seawater desalination company NanoH2O has closed an additional $60.5 million in equity financing and credit.

Certainly, desalination technology is nothing new. What could be considered new is NanoH2O’s approach. The company uses nanostructured, polymer-based reverse-osmosis membranes that help reduce the amount of energy needed to process seawater into a drinkable form.

This week, several companies agreed to provide $40 million in equity financing: chemical giant BASF’s venture capital arm along with Total Energy Ventures and Keystone Ventures.

In addition, the company has arranged for $20.5 million in growth capital, working capital and equipment financing credit from Comerica Bank and Lighthouse Capital Partners (backed by the Export-Import Bank of the United States).

The new funding and financing brings the total amount invested in debt and equity funding to more than $100 million, according to NanoH20.

That makes it one of the most well-funded water companies in cleantech.

The largest on-site wind project by any U.S. manufacturer?

By  | April 25, 2012

Summary: Hair products maker Zotos is among the EPA’s top 20 on-site electricity generators. Find out what other companies made the list.

Hair products Zotos, a subsidiary of Shiseido, could be running what is described as the largest on-site commercial wind technology installation in the United States.

The installation has a capacity of 3.3 megawatts, which is used to power its 670,000-square-foot manufacturing plant in Geneva, N.Y. It uses two 1,650-kilowatt wind turbines from Hyundai. The technology provides approximately 60 percent of the plant’s electricity needs. The company has contracted to buy up to 9 million kilowatt-hours of green energy in order to make up the difference.

Approximately 30 percent of the funding for the project came from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, according to Zotos. The project has been dubbed the largest of its county, the largest private industrial wind project in New York state, and the largest on-site U.S. installation for a manufacturing company.

Zotos has been in the game of generating on-site green energy for some time. The company shows up on the list of Top 20 On-Site Generation projects by businesses, and local and state governments. That list, which is pulled together by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was updated at the beginning of April. Here’s a run-down of who’s-who, along with the percentage of overall energy consumption produced by on-site power:

  1. Kimberly-Clark (8 percent)
  2. Wal-Mart Stores, California and Texas (4 percent)
  3. BMW Manufacturing, Greer, S.C. (37 percent)
  4. U.S. Air Force (< 1 percent)
  5. City of San Francisco (4 percent)
  6. Nassau County, N.Y. (15 percent)
  7. City of San Jose, Calif. (15 percent)
  8. SC Johnson & Son (14 percent)
  9. Kohl’s Department Stores (2 percent)
  10. City of San Diego (8 percent)
  11. City of Portland (8 percent)
  12. Encina Wastewater Authority (70 percent)
  13. Adobe Systems (17 percent)
  14. City of Tulare, Calif. (45 percent)
  15. Google (< 1 percent)
  16. Safeway (<1 percent)
  17. University of Iowa (3 percent)
  18. Zotos International (50 percent)
  19. Macy’s, California and Hawaii (26 percent)
  20. University of Minnesota, Morris (57 percent)

7 high-tech giants make latest EPA green power leaders list

By  | April 24, 2012, 3:03am PDT

Summary: Intel has held its status at No. 1 since 2008; Microsoft leaps into No. 3 position.

Intel continued its four-year streak at the top of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s list of top 50 companies using what it calls “green power.” The list has been in existence since 2004.

According to the EPA, green power resources include clean or renewable electricity sources such as solar, wind and hydropower. The aha moment for this latest quarterly update lies in the fact that all of the top 50 green power companies listed are “partnered” for at least 100 million kilowatt-hours of green power annually.

I use the word partnered, because not all of these companies are generating their own green power on-site or actually buying from a green power generator directly; in many cases they are buying renewable energy certificates in order to build up their green power portfolio.

Intel, which is been No. 1 on the national green power list since 2008, uses more than 2.5 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually that is generated with biomass, geothermal, small-hydro, solar and wind resources. Its green power consumption is about 88 percent of its total energy usage and it includes both on-site generation and the purchase of renewable energy certifications from organizations such as Sterling Planet.

Despite being dissed by GreenPeace for dirty power just last week, Microsoft showed up at No. 3 on the list with 1.12 billion kilowatt-hours of green power, or 46 percent of its consumption. Its green power comes from certificates for biomass, small-hydro and wind purchased from Sterling Planet.

Here are the other five IT and telecommunications companies that made the top 50:

  • Cisco Systems, with 268.6 million kilowatt-hours annually in green energy from wind investments (27 percent of consumption)
  • Sprint, with 176 million kilowatt-hours from solar and wind (5 percent)
  • Dell, with 119.4 million kilowatt-hours from biogas, solar and wind (29 percent)
  • Google, with 103 million kilowatt-hours from biogas, biomass, small-hydro, solar and wind (5 percent)
  • Xerox, with 101.4 million kilowatt-hours from wind (18 percent)

Related stories:

Airline catering company opts for 1E power management recipe

By Heather Clancy | April 18, 2012

After a successful pilot project yielded substantial savings, airline caterer LSG Sky Chefs has apparently opted for the NightWatchman power management application to address energy efficiency for personal computers across its organization.

NightWatchman, developed by 1E, will be used to power down the organization’s PCs during non-work hours. Based on the results of a test project, LSG Sky Chefs’ IT executive Dirk Kroning estimated that the installation will save approximately 400,000 kilowatt hours of electricity per year. That is despite the fact that approximately 800 of LSG’s computers needed to be kept running on a 24×7 basis.

“Despite having to exclude the PCs which need to be available all of the time from the new power saving policies, we still found the potential for significant energy savings, so we decided to license the solution across our global PCs,” said Kroning in a statement.

Notice that Kroning said “policy.” That’s because installing an application like this requires broader attention to the work practices of your organization. You can’t just install a power management app and expect it realize savings without making sure this is engrained in your corporate culture.

Nanosponge can absorb 100 times its weight in oil

 

a sponge made of pure carbon nanotubes with a dash of boron has been developed that can absorb up to 100 times its weight in oil. And, in part due to its extremely low density, this material has demonstrated a remarkable ability to absorb oil spills from the surface of water. After being absorbed, the oil can either be stored in the sponge for later retrieval or burned off, allowing the sponge to be reused.

According to researchers at Rice University, a sponge made of pure carbon nanotubes with a dash of boron has been developed that can absorb up to 100 times its weight in oil. And, in part due to its extremely low density, this material has demonstrated a remarkable ability to absorb oil spills from the surface of water. After being absorbed, the oil can either be stored in the sponge for later retrieval or burned off, allowing the sponge to be reused.

This was the headline of a paper published on Friday by Nature’s Scientific Reports, an open-access online journal. According to the paper’s authors, this porous carbon material is elastic, compressible, flexible, and lightweight. It is also hydrophobic and oleophillic – meaning that it “hates the water… and loves the oil.” This leads to a potential application in environmental cleanup after oil spills.

The paper’s primary author, Rice University graduate student Daniel Hashim, explains the technology in a short video:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/plugged-in/2012/04/16/nanosponge-can-absorb-100-times-its-weight-in-oil/

 

Robotic jellyfish runs off renewable energy

“We’ve created an underwater robot that doesn’t need batteries or electricity,” said Yonas Tadesse, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Texas, and one of the study’s authors, in a statement about the research. “It feeds off hydrogen and oxygen gasses and the only waste released as it travels is water.”

Summary: Researchers at the University of Texas (Dallas) and Virginia Tech experiment with a robot that runs of hydrogen and oxygen.

Researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas and Virginia Tech are using the concept of biomimicry to experiment with a robot that could, in the future, provide a model for the design of undersea surveillance and rescue vehicles.

So far, researchers have applied their approach to a robotic jellyfish (see the video below for a demonstration). The robotic jellyfish uses hydrogen and oxygen gasses in water as its source of energy. The work is described in Smart Materials and Structures.

99 percent of breast cancer tissues have parabens from cosmetics

"Deodorants and antiperspirants are some of the primary sources of parabens, but the fact that even those who reportedly never used them still had parabens in their breast tissue clearly demonstrates that these chemicals, regardless of what products they’re added to, can, and apparently will, accumulate in breast tissue.

It’s important to recognize that whatever you spread on your skin can be absorbed into your body and potentially cause serious damage over time, as this research demonstrates."

New research has detected the presence of paraben esters in 99 percent of breast cancer tissues sampledi. The study examined 40 women who were being treated for primary breast cancer.In 60 percent of cases, five of the different esters were present.Parabens are chemicals with estrogen-like properties, and estrogen is one of the hormones involved in the development of breast cancer.

http://healthimpactnews.com/2012/99-percent-of-breast-cancer-tissues-have-parabens-from-cosmetics/